Ataturk, Founder Of The Turkish Republic And The First President Of The Republic

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Ataturk, Founder Of The Turkish Republic And The First President Of The Republic

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born in a three-storey pink house at Islahhane Street, Kocakasim District, Salonika in 1881. His father is Ali Riza Efendi and mother is Zübeyde Hanim. His paternal grand father Hafiz Efendi, a member of Kocacik Nomads from Konya and Aydin region, which was settled in Macedonia during XIV-XV centuries. His mother Zübeyde Hanim, also a daughter of an old Turkish family, settled in the town of Langasa near Salonika. Ali Riza Efendi who had been a militia officer, a pious foundation clerk and for some time a timber merchant, married with Zübeyde Hanim in 1871. Atatürk's four of five siblings died in early ages, only sister Makbule Atadan survived and lived until 1956.

Atatürk's Address to the Youth of Turkey

Little Mustafa commenced his education in Hafiz Mehmet Efendi's neighborhood school, later he transferred to Semsi Efendi School, because his father wished so. (Comparatively modern education at the time.) During his primary education he lost his father in 1888. For a while he stayed in his uncle's farm in Rapla, returned to Salonika and completed his primary education. He enrolled to Salonika Junior High School for Civil Servants. After a short time in 1893, he transferred to Military Junior High School. It is at this school his math teacher Mustafa Bey, added Kemal to his name. Between 1896-1899, Mustafa Kemal finished Monastir Military Senior High School and commenced Military College in Istanbul. In 1902 he graduated with the rank of a lieutenant and continued his education in Military Academy. In January 1905 he completed the Academy and graduated with the rank of a captain. His first appointment was in 5 Army in Damascus between 1905-1907. He was promoted to adjutant major in 1907 and appointed to 3 Army in Monastery. He was the Chief of Staff of the Army Corps which entered Istanbul on 19 April 1909. He was sent to France in 1910 and took part in Picardie Manoeuvres. In 1911 he was back in Istanbul and started to work under the Command of General Staff.
Mustafa Kemal and a group of friends took part in Tobruk and Derna Fronts during the war which started in 1911 against Italians attacking Tripoli (Libya). He won the Battle of Tobruk against Italian forces on 22 December 1911. He then was appointed to Derna Front as the Commander-in-Chief on 6 March 1912.
When the Balkan War started in October 1912, Mustafa Kemal joined the battle with units in Gelibolu (Gallipoli) and Bolayir. He greatly contributed to the retrieval of Edirne and Dimetoka (Dhidhimotikhon). In 1913 he was appointed to Sofia as the military attache. During his assignment in Sofia he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel. His duty as the military attache ended in January 1915. During his stay in Sofia the First World War had started and Ottoman Empire had become obliged to enter in this war. Mustafa Kemal was appointed to Tekirdag to organize the 19 Division.
It is in the First World War, which started in 1914, that Mustafa Kemal wrote an heroic epic and made the legend of Dardanelles are Impassable against Entente troops in Gallipoli. On 18 March 1915, when British and French navies failed to break in through Straits of Dardanelles with heavy losses, the decision to land troops on the Gallipoli peninsula had been given. Under the command of Mustafa Kemal, 19 Division halted the enemy forces, which landed in Ariburnu -now called Anzak Koyu (Anzac Cove)- on 25 April 1915 at Conkbayir. Mustafa Kemal promoted to full colonel after this great success. British forces started attacking again from Ariburnu on 6-7 August 1915. Anafartalar Group Commander Mustafa Kemal won the victory of Battle of Anafartalar on 9-10 August. Following this, he also won the victories of Battle of Kirectepe on 17 August and Second Battle of Anafartalar on 21 August. Turkish nation defended her honour in Gallipoli (Battle of Canakkale) against Entente States by losing approximately 253 thousand of her sons to martyrdom. Mustafa Kemal's famous order to his soldiers I do not order you to attack, I order you to die, had changed the destiny of this Front.
In 1916 after Gallipoli, Mustafa Kemal took duties in Edirne and in Diyarbakir. He was promoted to brigadier general in 1 April 1916. He took part in the battles against Russian forces by which Mus and Bitlis were liberated. After short lasted duties in Damascus and Aleppo, he returned to Istanbul in 1917. He went to Germany with Heir Apparent Prince Vahdeddin Efendi for observations in the European Western Front. He became sick after this trip and received treatment in Vienna and Carlsbad. He returned to the Front on 15 August 1918 as the Commander-in-Chief of the 7 Army in Aleppo. At this front he achieved the most successful defensive battles in history against the British forces. He was appointed as the Commander-in-Chief of the Lightning Army Group on 31 October 1918, just one day after the signing of the truce in Moudros. After the abolishment of this Army Group he was appointed for a duty in the Ministry of War in Istanbul on 13 November 1918.
After the beginning of the occupation of the country and demobilization of the Ottoman armies according to the Moudros Truce, Mustafa Kemal arrived in Samsun on 19 May 1919 as the Inspector General of the 9 Army. On 22 June 1919, he issued the Amasya Circular, declaring that Nation's determination and decision will restore the nation's independence and called for the gathering of Congress in Erzurum and Sivas. Between 23 July and 7 August 1919 delegates from all over the country gathered in Erzurum and then between 4-11 September 1919 in Sivas, determining the path to follow in order to gain nations's independence. On 27 December 1919 he was welcomed in Ankara with great enthusiasm. 23 April 1920, the first day of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, is one of the very important steps on the way to founding of the Turkish Republic. Mustafa Kemal was elected as the first Speaker of the House and the Head of the Government. The Turkish Grand National Assembly started preparing and passing the new laws necessary for implementing the Independence War successfully.
Turkish Independence War started by firing the first bullet against the enemy during the occupation of Izmir by the Greek forces on 15 May 1919. Victors of the First World War, by signing of the Sèvres Agreement, started the occupation of their shares of the Ottoman Empire. At the beginning, resistance against occupation forces started with militia forces, namely Kuva-i Milliye (National Forces). Turkish Grand National Assembly established the regular army and successfully led the Independence War to the victory by integrating the militia forces into the regular army
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Important stages of the Independence War under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal are,

• Liberation of Sarikamis (20 September 1920), Kars (30 October 1920) and Gümrü (7 November 1920).
• Defences of Cukurova, Gaziantep, Sanliurfa and Kahraman Maras (1919-1920).
• Victory at the First Battle of Inönü (6-10 January 1920)
• Victory at the Second Battle of Inönü (23 March-1 April 1920).
• Victory at the Battle of Sakarya (23 August-13 September 1921).
• Great Offensive, Battle of Dumlupinar (Battle of Commander-in-Chief) and the Great (Final) Victory (26 August-9 September 1922).
After the victory at the Battle of Sakarya, Turkish Grand National Assembly promoted Mustafa Kemal to the rank of Field Marshal and granted him the title of Gazi-the Victorious Fighter. The Independence War ended by Lausanne Peace Treaty on 24 July 1923. Thus, all the impediments of the Sèvres Agreement had been removed and integrity of the Turkish land had been accomplished by the signing of the Lausanne Agreement. There was no obstructions left on the way to establish the new Turkish State based on national solidarity.
Founding of the Turkish Republic had been heralded by the opening of the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 23 April 1920. National Assembly's successful administration during the Independence War had secured the founding of the new Turkish State. Caliphate and Sultanate (monarchy) separated and Sultanate abolished on 1 November 1922. Therefore, the administrative ties with the Ottoman Empire were broken. The declaration of Republic was made on 29 October 1923 and Mustafa Kemal unanimously elected as the first President of the Republic. Ismet Inönü formed the first government of the Republic on 30 October 1923. Sovereignty unconditionally belongs to Nation and Peace at home, peace in the world are the raising fundamentals of the Turkish Republic.

Atatürk made many reforms in order to bring Turkey to the level of contemporary civilizations. Those reforms can be put under five main topics:

1. Political Reforms

- Abolishment of the Sultanate (1 November 1922)
- Declaration of the Republic (29 October 1923)
- Abolishment of Caliphate (3 March 1924)

2. Social Reforms
- Women were given equal rights with men (1926-1934)
- The Revolution of Headgear and Outfit (25 November 1925)
- Closing of dervish lodges and shrines (30 November 1925)
- The surname law (21 June 1934)
- Abolishment of nicknames, pious and royal titles (26 November 1934)
- Adoption of the International calendar, time and measurements (1925-1931)

3. Juridical Reforms
- Abolishment of the Canon Law (1924-1937)
- Instating the new Turkish Civil Code and other legislation to suit secular order (1924 - 1937)

4. Educational and Cultural Reforms
- Integration of education (3 March 1924)
- Adoption of the new Turkish alphabet (1 November 1928)
- Establishment of the Turkish Language and Historical Societies (1931-1932)
- Organization of the university education (31 May 1933).
- Innovations in fine arts

5. Economical Reforms
- Abolishment of old taxation laws.
- Encouragement of the farmers.
- Establishment of model farms.
- Legislation of the Encouragement of the Industry Law and establishment of Industrial Corporations.
- Implementing First and Second Development Plans (1933-1937), construction of new highways to reach every corner of the country.
In accordance with the new surname law, Turkish Grand National Assembly granted Mustafa Kemal with the surname Atatürk on 24 November 1934.
Atatürk had been elected twice as the Speaker of the House (National Assembly), on 24 April 1920 and 13 Augustus 1923. His chairmanship at that time, was equal to the Head of State and the Government combined. On 29 October 1923 Republic was declared and Atatürk elected as the first President of the Republic. According to the Constitution Presidential elections held for every four years. Atatürk had been reelected as the President of the Republic in 1927, 1931 and 1935 by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
Atatürk very frequently used to go for fact-finding trips in the country. He kept in contact with local authorities and directed them personally in every occasion. In the capacity of the President of the Republic, he received the visiting foreign presidents, premiers, ministers and commanders with great respect and authority.
Atatürk gave his Great Speech on 15-20 October 1927 in which he described the Independence War and Founding of Republic, and on 29 October 1933 the 10. Year Speech.
Atatürk was very modest in his private life. He married with Latife Hanim on 29 January 1923. Together they had many trips around the country. This marriage lasted until 5 August 1925. As a great lover of children, Atatürk adopted his daughters Afet (Inan), Sabiha (Gökcen), Fikriye, Ülkü, Nebile, Rukiye, Zehra and his son Mustafa, a young shepherd boy. He also had two children under his protection, Abdurrahim and Ihsan. He secured a good life and future for these children who survived.
In 1937, he donated his farms to State Treasury and some of his real estates to Ankara and Bursa Municipality Councils. He divided his inheritance among his sister, his adopted children and the Turkish Language and Historical Societies. He enjoyed reading, listening music, dancing, horse riding and swimming. He was very much interested in the Western Anatolian folk dance Zeybek, wrestling and listening Rumelia songs. He had great pleasure of playing black gammon and billiards. He valued very much his horse Sakarya and his dog Fox. He had made up a very rich library of his own. He used to invite statesmen, scholars and scientists to dinners and discuss state affairs with them. He was very particular about his appearance and was smartly dressed all the times. He was also a nature lover. He very often used to visit his farm Atatürk Orman Ciftligi-Atatürk Forest Farm and took part at works in person. Atatürk was proficient in French and German.
On 10 November 1938 at 9.05 in the morning, in Istanbul, Dolmabahce Palace, he died of the liver ailment he was suffering from. He was buried with a ceremonial funeral in a temporary place of rest at the Ethnographical Museum in Ankara on 21 November 1938. After building of Anitkabir (Atatürk Mausoleum) he was taken to his permanent rest place with a grand ceremony on 10 November 1953.

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AtatÜrk'Ün GenÇlİĞe Hİtabesİ.


Turkish Youth, Your first duty is to preserve and to defend Turkish
Independence and the Turkish Republic forever. This is the very
foundation of your existence and your future. This foundation is your most
precious treasure. In the future, too, there may be malevolent people at
home and abroad, who will wish to deprive you of this treasure. If some
day you are compe lled to defend your independence and your Republic, you
must not hesitate to weigh the possibilities and circumstances of the
situation before doing your duty. These possibilities and circumstances
may turn out to be extremely unfavourable. The enemies c onspiring against
your independence and your Republic may have behind them a victory
unprecedented in the annals of the world. It may be that, by violence and
trickery, all the fortresses of your beloved fatherland may be captured,
all its shipyards occupied, all its armies dispersed and every corner of
the country invaded. And sadder and graver than all these circumstances,
thos e who hold power within the country may be in error, misguided and
may even be traitors. Furthermore, they may identify personal interests
with the political designs of the invaders. The country may be
impoverished, ruined and exhausted. Youth of Turkey's future, even in
such circumstances it is your duty to save Turkish Independence and the
Republic. You will find the strength you need in your noble blood.​
Daimi Üye
General Directorate Of Monuments and Museums

His life full of wars for independence of Turkish country and revolutions to raise the Turkish nation to level of modern civilization, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the leader in the Turkish War of Independence and Turkish Revolutions, and founder of Turkish Republic, died on November10th 1938.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was a great leader, who turned Turkey into member of modern civilization, with all institutions. To build a mausoleum that would represent his eminence, and thoughts about principles, revolutions and modernization, emerged as a common idea of the Turkish nation, during the great sadness following the death of Atatürk.
As there was an observation station on the site before building Anıtkabir, the name of Anıttepe was formerly Rasattepe.

There were barrows related to the Frig civilization, which lived in Anatolia in the 12th century B.C. on this hill. After the decision to build Anıtkabir to this hill, archeological studies were carried out and the barrows removed. The findings the from barrows are exhibited in Anatolian Civilizations Museum.
In the first stage on starting construction, the nationalization procedure was initiated. The construction of Anıtkabir was started in 9th November 1944, with a magnificent ceremony. Construction was completed in 9 years, in 4 stages.
Construction of First Stage: 1944 – 1945
The first stage, including the construction of the supporting wall of the lion road and the ground level, was started on November 9th 1944 and completed in 1945.
Construction of Second Stage: 1945 – 1950
The second stage, including the construction of the mausoleum and buildings that surround ceremony area, was started in 29th September 1945, and completed on August 8th 1950. At this stage, the “foundation project” of the monument body was decided to be prepared, in order to reduce the foundation pressure, according to the building's construction system. By the end of 1947, foundation excavation and isolation were completed, and an iron assembly 11 meters high reinforced the concrete foundation system, which would prevents any kind of subsidence, were just about to completed.

The entrance turrets and most of the road arrangement, nursery facility, forestration work and watering system of the area were mostly completed.
Construction of Third Stage: 1950
The third stage of construction included the roads to the monument, the lion road, the ceremony area, stone plating of the upper part of the mausoleum, steps, placing the sarcophagus and installation work.
Construction of Fourth Stage: 1950 – 1953
Preparation of the honor hall, lower parts of vaults, stone profiles of the honor hall, and ornamentation of eaves were completed in the fourth stage of construction. This stage was started on November 20th 1950, and completed on September 1st 1953.

In the “Anıtkabir Project”, there was the vault section that rises over colonade. On December 4th 1951, the government asked architects if it was possible to finish the building earlier, in the case of lowering the height of 28 meter honor hall.

After the studies of architects, it was found possible to cover hall of honour with a reinforced concrete ceiling, instead of stone vaults. This would also prevent the technical problems arising from the weight of the vault.

In the construction of Anıtkabir, different colors of travertine were used as exterior plating material over concrete and marble for plating inside of the mausoleum.

The white travertine that is used in statues, lion statues and mausoleum columns were from Kayseri / Pınarbaşı, and white travertine used in inside walls of turrets were from Polatlı and Malıköy. Black and red travertines from Kayseri / Boğazköprü were used in plating of floors of ceremony area and turrets, and yellow travertines from Çankırı / Eskipazar were used for the victory reliefs and columns that surround the hall of honour and the ceremony area.

Cream, red and black colored marbles used in floor of honor hall were from Çanakkale, Hatay and Adana, the tiger skin used in the hall of honour's inside interior walls was from Afyon, and green colored marble was from Bilecik. The sarcophagus stone in one piece, which weighed 40 tons, was taken from Adana / Osmaniye, and white marbles that plates the side walls of the sarcophagus were taken from Afyon.
The period between the years 1940 and 1950 is called “2nd National Architecture Period” in Turkish architecture. In this period, more monumental, symmetrical buildings were erected, with cube shaped stones. Anıtkabir bears the signs of this period.

With the properties of this period, Anıtkabir also bears features of Seljuk and Ottoman architecture and ornamental details.

As an example, in the outer surfaces, where ceiling and walls unite, there is a border which is called saw tooth pattern in Seljuk. Also some ornaments such as passionflower and rosette, found in some places in Anıtkabir (Mehmetçik Turret, Museum Management), are from Seljuk and Ottoman art.

With all these properties, Anıtkabir is one of the best examples for that period, which covers approximately 750.000 m2. Anıtkabir can be separated into two parts: Peace Park and the Monument Block
Anıtkabir is placed in the Peace Park, which is created with saplings from several foreign countries and from several regions of Turkey, that is inspired from the epigram of Atatürk; “Peace at home, peace in the world”.

Several trees and saplings were taken from Afghanistan, United States, Germany, Austria, Belgium, China, Denmark, Finland, France, India, Iraq, England, Spain, Israel, Italy, Japan, Canada, Cyprus, Egypt, Norway, Portugal, Yugoslavia and Greece. Today, the Peace Park contains appraximately 48.500 trees and plants, from 104 different species.
The Monument Block contains three parts.

1. Lion Road
2. Ceremony Area
3. Mausoleum

When entered from Tandoğan gate, the road in Peace Park leads to 26 stepped wide stairs to the Lion Road. At the top of the stairs, independence and liberty turrets can be seen facing one another.

In the Anıtkabir building complex, there are ten turrets, which are placed symmetrically. These turrets are named with eminent concepts, according to their effects to the foundation of our nation and government. The turrets are similar to each other with their plan and structure. The Turrets are based on a square-shaped 12x14x7.20 meter rectangle, and covered with pyramid-shaped roofs. On the top of the roofs, bronze spear tips from old Turkish tents are visible. Geometrical ornaments from old Turkish kilim (woven carpet) motifs are applied in fresco technique.

Also, Atatürk’s aphorisms related with that turret can be found on the inside of the walls.
The Independence Turret is placed on the right, at the beginning of Lion Road. On the reliefs on the interior walls of Independence Turret, a young man holding a sword with both hands, standing and a eagle figure on a rock beside youth, can be seen. The Eagle is the symbol for power and independence in mythology and Seljuk art. The young man with sword representsTurkish nation as defending independence. Reliefs are work of Zühtü Müridoğlu.

Also there are aprohisms of Atatürk, related with independence:

“When our nation seemed come to an end, her ancestor's voice called her to revolt, and to our War of Independence.” (1921)

“Life means battle, combat. Succes in life will be possible only through succes in battle.” (1927)

“We are a nation that wants life and independence, and we will pay with our life.” (1921)

“There is no choice such as begging for justice and mercy. The Turkish nation, future Turkish children, should bear this in mind forever.” (1927)

“This nation never lived without independence, can’t live, and won’t live without it. Independence or death.” (1919)

There is an Anıtkabir scale model, and there are illuminated boards in the turret.
In the relief inside the Liberty Turret, on the left side of the beginning of the Lion Road, there is an angel figure holding a paper and a rearing horse. The angel figure symbolizes the sacredness of independence, with the paper “Independence Declaration”. The horse is the symbol of liberty and independence. The reliefs are the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu.

In the walls of the turret, some words of Atatürk about liberty read as follows:

“The issue is the life of the Turkish nation as a respected nation. This is only possible with independence. Despite all riches, without independence, thay are nothing more than a manservant before mankind.”

“According to me, maintaining a nation’s honor and humanity, is possible with that nation’s liberty and independence.


There are 24 lion statues in sitting position which are placed on both ends of the road, which prepares visitors for the eminent presence of Atatürk. The road is 262 meters long. The lion statues represent power and tranquility. The lion statues are done in Hittite style, because of Atatürk’s attention to Turk and Anatolian history. The Statues are the work of Hüseyin Özkan.
Daimi Üye
The ceremony area, at the end of lion road, is in the dimensions of 129x84.25 meters. The area, with a capacity of 15.000 persons, is decorated with 373 carpet and kilim patterns, using black, red and white colored travertine stones.
The Metmetçik (a nickname for the Turkish soldier) Turret is placed at the end of the Lion Road, at the right. On the relief outside the turret, the figure represents Mehmetçik leaving his home. In this figure, the sad but proud mother, who sends her son to war, is portrayed. The Relief is the work of Zühtü Müridoğlu.

On the walls of the turret, Atatürk’s aphorism’s about Mehmetçik and the Turkish woman can be seen.

In the turret, several books about Anıtkabir and Atatürk are sold.

Atatrük and the Turkish Revolution Library is placed between the Mehmetçik and Liberty Turrets. This “specialty library” about Atatürk, the national war and the revolutions, is available for research on weekdays between 09.00-12.30 and 13.30-17.00.
On the walls of the turret, dates and notes about Atatürk’s most important three victories are on display.

In the turret, the gun carriage that bore Atatürk’s body from İstanbul Dolmabahçe Palace on November 19th, 1938 to the fleet at Sarayburnu, can also be seen.

Between the Peace and Victory Turrets, in the middle of the gallery, there is symbolical sarcophagus of İsmet İnönü, who died on December 25th 1973, a very close friend of Atatürk, West Front commander of the Independence War, and second president of the Republic of Turkey. The Tomb room is downstairs.

İsmet İnönü was buried at Anıtkabir at December 28th 1973, on the decision of the Council of Ministers.
There is a composition on the inside walls of the turret, which describes the principle of Atatürk “Peace at home, peace in the world”. In this relief, there are farmers and a soldier protecting them with his sword is shown. This soldier symbolizes the Turkish military as a basis for peace. Thus, people can continue their daily life. The Relief is the work of Nusret Suman.

On the walls of the turret, some of Atatürk’s words are as follows:

“Peace at home, peace in the world”.

“Unless the nation’s life is under attack, war is murder”. (1923)

In the turret, Atatürk’s ceremonious and official automobiles between the years 1935- 1938, are presented.
There is a relief on the inside walls of the turret, that represents the opening of the Turkish National Assembly. A woman holding a paper is standing in this relief. The date April 23rd 1920 is written on this paper. The woman holds a key in her other hand, representing the opening of our National Assembly. The relief is the work of Hakkı Atamulu.

One of the aphorisms on the walls of the turret:

“There was only one choice: Founding a new independent Turkish Government, depending on national preeminence.” (1919)

Atatürk’s private automobile between the years 1936-1938 is exhibited in the turret.
In the middle of the stairs leading to the ceremony area, there is a Turkish flag on the high flagpole. This 33.53 meter long flagpole is specially manufactured in USA, and is the longest single piece steel flagpole. 4 meters of flagpole are under the base. It was presented as a gift to Anıtkabir in 1946 from Nazmi Cemal, an American citizen of Turkish origin. This flagpole was manufactured at his own flagpole factory. The relief on the base of the flagpole torch represents Turkish civilization, the sword represents the power to attack, the helmet represents power of defense, the oak branch repserents victory, and the olive branch repsesents peace. The Relief is the work of Kenan Yontuç.
The relief in the tower which is situated at the entrance of the museum, represents our gathering in unity. The relief consists of four hands grasping each other on the butt of a sword. This composition expresses the promise of the nation to save the Turkish fatherland. The relief is the work of Nusret Suman.

On the walls of the tower are Atatürk’s words on the National Contract:

“What writes the national oath, which is our general rule of liberation, is the iron hand of the nation.” (1923)

“We want to live free and independent within our national boundaries.” (1921)

“Nations who can’t find their national identity are prey to other nations.” (1923)

In the midst of the tower is a tribute to the signing, which is signed by special committees attending ceremonies carried out in Anıtkabir. In the tower which is also the entrance of the museum are reality panels on which are presented photographs of important ceremonies in Anıtkabir.
In line with the conditions of the Anıtkabir Project Competition, the section between the National Contract and the Reform Towers is specified as a museum. For this purpose, the Anıtkabir Atatürk Museum was opened on June 21st, 1960. Here, Atatürks personal belongings, gifts presented to him and his clothes are on exhibition.

Besides, Atatürk’s medals and insignia, and some of Atatürk’s belongings which were granted by his adopted children. A. Afet İnan, Rukiye Erkin, Sabiha Gökçen are also included in th exhibition.
In this tower, which is the continuation of the museum clothes Atatürk wore are exhibited. On the inner wall of the tower, the relief of a weak, powerless hand holding a torch about to go out, symbolizes the collapsing Ottoman Empire. The other bright torch held in the skies by a mighty hand symbolizes the new Turkish Republic and the Reforms Atatürk carried out to enable the Turkish nation to catch up with modern civilization. The relief is the work of Nusret Suman.

On the tower walls are these words of Atatürk on his reforms:

“If a society does not proceed with all its men and women towards the same purpose, there’s no technical possibility and scientific probability of its becoming civilized.”

“We are not inspired by heavens and the unknown sphere but directly by life itself.”

In this tower which is used as the garments section of the museum is a life-size wax statue of Atatürk by Anadolu University’s former president Prof.Dr. Yılmaz Büyükerşen.
On the walls of this tower which marks the entrance of the Arts Gallery is this word of Atatürk on the Republic.

“Our greatest power and most reliable support is: that we really have proven that we have copmprehended our national sovereignty, delivered it to the people and that we are able to let it remain in the hands of the people.”

In the tower the models of the Manastır Military High School which Atatürk attended, of the buildings of the Sivas and Erzurum Congresses, and photographs of these years are exhibited.
In this section which is in between the Tower of Republic and the Towers of Legal Defence is demonstrated Atatürk’s personal library.

On the walls are oil paintings depicting Atatürk and foreign statesmen together. The paintings are works of the artist Rahmi Pehlivanlı.

In the gallery is there also a cinevision part which shows documentaries related to Atatürk, National Struggle and the Anıtkabir.
Turkish Youth!

Your first duty is to forever preserve and defend the Turkish Independence and the Turkish Republic.

This is the very foundation of your existence and your future. This foundation is your most precious treasure. In the future, too, there may be malevolent people at home and abroad, wishing to deprive you of this treasure. If some day, you are compelled to defend your independence and your republic, you will not hesitate before you take upon yourself the duty thinking about the possibilities and circumstances of the situation in which you will find yourself. These possibilities and circumstances may prove to be extremely unfavourable. The enemies conspiring against your independence and your republic may have behind them a victory unprecedented in the whole world. By means of violence and deceit, all the fortresses of your beloved fatherland may have been captured, and all its shipyards occupied, armies dispersed and every corner of the country invaded. And even more distressing and graver than all these circumstances; within the country, those who have the authority to rule may have fallen into negligence, error and even treachery. Furthermore, they may identify their own interests with the political desires of the invaders. The country may be in extreme poverty, in ruins and in exhaustion.

Youth of Turkey's future,

Even in such circumstances, it is your duty to save the Turkish Independence and Republic. The strength you need is the noble blood that runs in your veins! (1927)

Address: Anıt Caddesi Tandoğan/Ankara
Tel: (312) 231 79 75